Measured and predicted stem carbon content of, Allometric Modelling of the Stem Carbon Content of, Department of Zoology and Environmental Management, Faculty of Science, University of Kelaniya, Dalugama, Kelaniya, Sri Lanka, International Journal of Forestry Research, Percentage increase of mean stem carbon content compared to previous diameter class (%), C. Giri, E. Ochieng, L. L. Tieszen et al., “Status and distribution of mangrove forests of the world using earth observation satellite data,”, W. Giesen, S. Wulffraat, M. Zieren, and L. Scholten, “Mangrove guidebook for southeast Asia,”, A. E. Schwarzbach and R. E. Ricklefs, “Systematic affinities of Rhizophoraceae and Anisophylleaceae, and intergeneric relationships within Rhizophoraceae, based on chloroplast DNA, nuclear ribosomal DNA, and morphology,”, J. Kumar, M. E. Vijey Kumar, K. B. Ranjanna et al., “Ecological benefits of mangrove,”, N. H. Tri, W. N. Adger, and P. M. Kelly, “Natural resource management in mitigating climate impacts: the example of mangrove restoration in Vietnam,”, D. M. Alongi, “Mangrove-microbe-soil relations,” in, D. M. Alongi and P. Dixon, “Mangrove primary production and above-and below-ground biomass in Sawi Bay, southern Thailand,”, D. M. Alongi, “Mangrove forests: resilience, protection from tsunamis, and responses to global climate change,”, K. Dhanwantri, P. Sharma, S. Mehta, and P. Prakash, “Carbon sequestration, its methods and significance,”, D. Murdiyarso, J. Purbopuspito, J. The total leaf area of the sampled trees ranged from 1.7 m2 to 50.5 m2. However, there is no consensus on the contribution of old trees to carbon storage due to lack of long-term individual tree data . Stepwise regression with backward elimination was used to identify the major predictors of stem carbon content of Rhizophora mucronata. Rhizophora mucronata is a small to medium size evergreen tree growing to a height of about 20 to 25 metres (66 to 82 ft) on the banks of rivers. Their average diameter is 14 cm (with a minimum of 6.37 cm and a maximum of 23.57 cm) for the first and 15 cm (with Data on Plot C measurement results of the Rhizopora mucronata Rehabilitation Forest Dimension. There was no significant difference of the mean measured stem carbon content and the mean predicted stem carbon content from the allometric equations developed for Rhizophora mucronata (Table 5, Student’s t test, ). The stepwise regression with backward elimination was used to identify the best fit model to predict the stem carbon content of Rhizophora mucronata. Generally, mature trees are expected to have long carbon residence time. Most of these allometric equations are used for the biomass related studies in terrestrial forest ecosystems. W. M. Dimuthu Nilmini Wijeyaratne, Pawani Madhushani Liyanage, "Allometric Modelling of the Stem Carbon Content of Rhizophora mucronata in a Tropical Mangrove Ecosystem", International Journal of Forestry Research, vol. On the fringes of the sea 10 or 15 metres is a more typical height. The Archimedes displacement principle was used to measure the initial volume of the collected core samples. Therefore, a discrepancy between the actual age of the tree phoraceae), Rhizophora mucronata, Bruguiera gymnorhiza, and Sonneratia alba. Leaf area was not statistically significant. The data are presented as mean ± standard deviation. The average height of trees varies from 8.3 to 92 m. , respectively for the facies with A. marina and R. mucronata. The fixed stem carbon biomass of all the core samples was determined by loss on the ignition method as described by Guendehou and Leehtonen . Two times of assessments, 17 May and 19 August 2015 were done to monitor and evaluate 325 ten months-rehabilitated seedlings. The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this article. Distribution of the residuals for the models indicated a random pattern, and the distribution were between +1 and 1 implying a good fit for linear model (Figure 1). The descriptive statistics of the tree parameters of, The stem carbon content data are presented as mean ± standard deviation. Findings of the present study can be extended to estimate the functional capacities carbon sequestration by other Sri Lankan mangroves, and therefore encourage rational decision making on conservation and management of mangrove areas for their ecological services including their carbon sequestration capacity and influence to mitigate predicted climatic changes. Sembilan was carried on 21 August 2014 using indirect planting of 1000 Rhizophora mucronata seedlings. The total height ranged from 3.5 m to 12.1 m. The merchantable stem height and crown height ranged from 2.3 m to 8.8 m and 0.5 m to 6.9 m respectively. The best fitted model was used to estimate the stem carbon content of reserved 25% of trees. Red mangrove is a tree with a glossy green, quite compact crown; it can grow 8 - 30 metres tall. The percentage increase of mean stem carbon content decreased in the other successive DBH classes (Table 2). Therefore, it is recommended to extend this allometric equation development method to estimate the stem carbon content of other common tropical mangrove species in order to get an accurate estimate on the contribution of tropical mangrove stem carbon storage capacity for mitigation of global warming. In Rhizophora mucronata, the bacterial treatment increased the shoot height growth at different levels of salinity. However, there was no significant difference in the mean stem carbon content of the trees at the DBH classes 4 and 6. 221 0 obj <> endobj 259 0 obj<<550E8272869711E2B0B9E80688CAF5AE>]/Info 220 0 R/Encrypt 222 0 R/Filter/FlateDecode/W[1 3 1]/Index[221 74]/DecodeParms<>/Size 295/Prev 1251171/Type/XRef>>stream Increment borer was used to collect core samples of tree trunk from each tree at breast height with relatively minor injury to the tree. However, few studies have used tree allometric modelling to determine the above ground biomass of mangrove trees in some regions of the world [22–27]. Propagules, those about to detach from trees were collected in August, 2013 in Pambala lagoon, Sri Lanka (7°34’N, 79°48’E) to use in the experiment. MINITAB 14 software was used for statistical analysis. The total leaf area of the sampled trees ranged from 1.7 m 2 to 50.5 m 2. The tree has a large number of aerial stilt roots buttressing the trunk. Review articles are excluded from this waiver policy. thesis. On the fringes of the sea 10 or 15 metres is a more. In plot B Rhizophora mukronata as many as 381 trees with a base area value of 13,466 m2 / year, total volume value of 14,866 m3 / year, biomass value of 8,420 tons / ha, carbon of 4.210 tons / ha, average increment value of 0.39 cm / year / tree. 418. The correlation between the stem carbon content and the individual tree parameters was assessed using person’s correlation analysis. The residual distribution diagrams for the best model for Rhizophora mucronata is given in Figure 1. Therefore, the present study was conducted with the objective of using a nondestructive method to estimate the stem carbon content of Rhizophora mucronata in conserved tropical mangrove ecosystems. Qualitative assessment of vegetation structure often uses species richness, plant height and apparent zonation of … raised by the authors for three years along the Vellar estuary (Lat. Price, J. S. Weitz, V. M. Savage et al., “Testing the metabolic theory of ecology,”, M. D. Amarasinghe and S. Balasubramaniam, “Net primary productivity of two mangrove forest stands on the northwestern coast of Sri Lanka,” in, M. A. D. Umayangani and K. A. R. S. Perera, “Contribution of vegetation structure on carbon assimilation capacity of mangrove ecosystem: a case study from negombo estuary, Sri Lanka,”. x�bbd```b``Y"_�� Therefore, it is very important to measure the carbon content of the tree stems, in order to estimate the role of a particular tree species in removal of excessive carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The residuals values for Rhizophora mucronata were calculated as the difference between the actual stem carbon content and predicted stem carbon content from the model. The total height ranged from 3.5 m to 12.1 m. The merchantable stem height and crown height ranged from 2.3 m to 8.8 m and 0.5 m to 6.9 m respectively. A diameter tape was used to measure the diameter at breast height (DBH) of each tree, and the clinometer method was used to measure the total tree height, tree crown height, and merchantable stem height. We will be providing unlimited waivers of publication charges for accepted research articles as well as case reports and case series related to COVID-19. In model B, DBH (VIF = 1) showed a good fit for the model (R2 = 76.7%) (Table 4). Therefore, total height, stem height, and crown height were eliminated to refit the model. The predictor variables used were DBH (diameter at breast height), total height, crown height, merchantable stem height, and leaf area. On the fringes of the sea 10 or 15 metres (33 or 49 ft) is a more typical height. growing to a height of about 20 to 25 metres on the banks of. The mean DBH, stem height, merchantable stem height, crown height leaf area and the stem carbon content of Rhizophora mucronata are given in Table 1. Rhizophora mucronata, a dominant species in the Kenyan mangroves (UNEP, 2001), has been reported on several occasions to form wood which completely lacks growth ... of the tree, but at 130 cm height above ground level. 2020, Article ID 8849413, 6 pages, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/8849413, 1Department of Zoology and Environmental Management, Faculty of Science, University of Kelaniya, Dalugama, Kelaniya, Sri Lanka. The stem carbon content of the sampled trees ranged from 3.5 … The value of the best fit model for Rhizophora mucronata was statistically significant as it was lower than the alpha level of 0.01 (Table 4, stepwise regression analysis with backward elimination method). The model was validated using the diagram between the actual values and the residual values and Student’s t test was used to compare the predicted stem carbon content from the allometric equation and the measured stem carbon content. The results of the correlation analysis are given in Table 3. The mean values of the measured stem carbon content and the predicted stem carbon content using the prediction model for Rhizophora mucronata are given in Table 5. Table 4. the stem carbon content of Rhizophora mucronata can be explained up to high percentage (more than 60%) by the selected explanatory variable, which is DBH. In the model A, total height (VIF = 22.20), stem height (VIF = 10.22), and crown height (VIF = 9.75) indicate high multicollinearity. Previous studies conducted in this part of the country to assess the mangrove carbon sequestration capacity have used destructive methods [31, 32]. ... as well as Rhizophora mucronata, ... Island in Western Visayas, while 12 were discovered in Masinloc, and they have an average diameter of 5.5 centimeters and height of 6 meters. Declining tree growth over time is caused due to changes in the supply rate of required resources (light, nutrients, and water), change in balance between photosynthesis and respiration, increased hydraulic resistance, decreased nutrient supply, or genetic changes with meristem age which can result in increased carbon storage capacity of the mature trees compared to the new trees [17–21]. This is a very common species in the mangrove forests in the Asian region and found in Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Malaysia Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Vietnam [5, 6]. We are committed to sharing findings related to COVID-19 as quickly as possible. Rhizophora mucronata Lam. Carbon sequestration performance at each diameter class was determined by calculating the mean stem carbon content at each diameter class. The approximate global area covered by mangrove forests is estimated to be 140,000 km2 with the highest extent of mangroves occurring in Asia (42%), followed by Africa (20%) and North and Central America (15%) . Furthermore, Rhizophora mucronata is recognized as a species with a considerable economic importance as it provides natural products such as charcoal, wild honey, and timber, food, and medicinal element to the mangrove forest associated residents to improve the quality of their livelihoods [9, 10]. SizeCan reach 30–40 m (100–130 ft) in height, although commonly reaches 5–8 m (16–26 ft). The VIF > 5 suggests that the regression coefficient is poorly estimated due to severe multicollinearity, and 1 < VIF < 5 suggests that regression coefficient is poorly estimated due to severe multicollinearity. Rep., U.S. Agency for International Development, Program in Science and Technology Cooperation, Washington, DC, USA, 1990, Interim Report. The present study can be considered as the initial attempt to use a non-destructive method to construct an allometric equation to predict the stem carbon content of Rhizophora mucronata in a tropical conserved mangrove forest. The highest percentage increase of mean stem carbon content was observed between the DBH classes 1 and 2. The model bias value was very close to 0, and the modelling efficiency value was close to one indicating that the selected model is well suited to predict the stem carbon content of Rhizophora mucronata. Considering the diameter at breast height of all the trees, the trees were grouped into classes as follows: Diameter class 1:4.0 < DBH ≤ 6.0 cm Diameter class 2: 6.0 < DBH ≤ 8.0 cm Diameter class 3: 8.0 < DBH ≤ 10.0 cm Diameter class 4: 10.0 < DBH ≤ 12.0 cm Diameter class 5: 12.0 < DBH ≤ 14.0 cm Diameter class 6: 14.0 < DBH ≤ 16.0 cm. The stem carbon content of the sampled trees ranged from 3.5 kg to 109.6 kg (Table 1). The stem carbon content can be easily estimated from this model by using an easily measurable tree parameter. The mangrove forests are very diverse ecosystems and they consist of true mangroves, mangrove-associated plants, and other organisms . They have elongated tips but these often brea… However, the removal of plants from their natural ecosystem can have detrimental effects to the global climate and therefore currently it is not encouraged to remove plants even for the research purposes. Determination of the stem carbon content of individual species is very important and can play a key role when assessing the carbon sequestration capacity of the ecosystems. As it is always better to keep the model simple in the real-world application, the model B was selected as the best model for Rhizophora mucronata. The tallest trees are closest to the water and shorter trees are further inland. The tallest trees are closest to the water and shorter trees are further inland. Show All Show Tabs Asiatic mangrove General Information; Symbol: RHMU Group: Dicot Family: Rhizophoraceae Duration: Perennial: Growth Habit: Tree: Native Status: PB N: Other Common Names: mangrove Data Source and Documentation: About our new maps. Mangroves play an important role in carbon sequestration in tropical and subtropical coastal areas, and they have a considerable contribution of carbon dioxide mitigation. This carbon is fixed by photosynthesis and comparatively high carbon content can be stored in the stem of the trees compared to the leaves. Stepwise regression with backward elimination was used to construct an allometric equation for the stem carbon content of Rhizophora mucronata. Furthermore, they can act as barriers to the excess silt and sediments washed away into estuaries and lagoons and thereby prevent the harm to the coral reefs and sea grass beds due to excessive siltation [7–10]. This species is commonly known as the loop-root mangrove, red mangrove, and Asiatic mangrove [4, 5]. Rhizophora mucronata is a small to medium size evergreen tree growing to a height of about 20 to 25 metres (66 to 82 ft) on the banks of rivers. from demarcated plots of using plot-less methods. Table 3. The reserved 25% of data were used for model validation. We therefore selected three species of mangroves with different propagule size: Avicennia marina (2.5 ± 0.3 cm), Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (16 ± 2 cm) and Rhizophora mucronata (36 ± 3 cm). Model fit was examined using value, R2 value, and residual diagram. The significantly highest stem carbon content was recorded from the Rhizophora mucronata trees at DBH class 5 (12.1 cm–14.00 cm). Figures 4–5 show the height and dbh distributions of mangrove species in meters and centimeters respectively. 11 29' 08.0'' N;Long. The present study was conducted to develop an allometric model to determine the stem carbon content of Rhizophora mucronata in a conserved tropical mangrove ecosystem. The data are presented as mean ± standard deviation. The Mean Annual Increment (MAI) of stem diameter and height of R. mucronata and A. marina seedlings is shown on the Table 4. Copyright © 2020 W. M. Dimuthu Nilmini Wijeyaratne and Pawani Madhushani Liyanage. The actively growing trees can store more carbon in their stem. The VIF = 1 means that there is no multicollinearity among the explanatory variables, and therefore, these variables are best suited to fit into the model. var. Seventy individual trees of Rhizophora mucronata were selected from the study area based on purposive sampling. Asiatic Mangrove ( Rhizophora mucronata ) Height: up to 30 m Origin: Southeast Asia Environment: tidal creeks and coastal areas Climate: wet, tropical Notes: The Asiatic Mangrove grows on the banks of tidal creeks, around estuaries and in areas flooded by daily high tides. There has been no specific study to highlight why R. mucronata became the dominant species of the 079 45' 29.9'' E), southeast coast of India was selected for pruning experiment. 2.2. According to Kathiresan and Rajendran (2005), Rhizophora mucronata and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza are cosmopolitan species with wide distribution in Indian Ocean. The present study used a nondestructive method of measuring individual tree parameters to develop this allometric equation to predict the stem carbon content and it is considered as an environmentally friendly approach with minimum damage to the tree. R. R. Twilley, R. Zimmerman, L. Solorzano et al., “The importance of mangroves in sustaining fisheries and controlling water quality in coastal ecosystems,” Tech. However, the carbon sequestration potential of Rhizophora mucronata is not widely researched in the tropical mangrove ecosystems. The model bias and modelling efficiency values for the best fitted model of Rhizophora mucronata was used for the evaluation of the model. The structure of mangrove vegetation is characterized in terms of species richness, diversity, tree/stem density, species and stand basal area, frequency of occurrence of constituent species, plant/stand height, above ground biomass and canopy volume/leaf area index. Menurut Hughes (2002) sistem kekebalan tubuh rentan terhadap kerusakan oksidatif, hal ini disebabkan karena sel imun memproduksi komponen-komponen reaktif sebagai bagian dari mekanisme pertahanan tubuh.Efektivitas kerja sistem imun sangat bergantung pada komunikasi antar sel melalui reseptor … These parameters can either be measured in sample (representative) areas, i.e. The plant height was 8 % higher in Rhizophora mucronata than that in Avicennia marina. The studies that have been conducted so far have followed a destructive method of sampling, which involves the removal of sampled trees from the ecosystem and measuring the carbon content stored in the plant parts. The black mangrove, usually of moderate height, sometimes grows 18 to 21 metres (59 to 69 feet) tall. To construct the model, 75% of data were used. The percentage increase of mean stem carbon content compared to previous diameter class was also calculated. Rhizophora mucronata is a small to medium size evergreen tree growing to a height of about 20 to 25 metres on the banks of rivers. The constructed models, their regression coefficients, and VIFs (variance inflation factors) are given in Table 4. In addition, Rhizophora mucronata is commonly used in the tropical mangrove replantation programmes due to its adaptability and rapid growth rate. stylosa (Griff.) On the fringes of the sea 10 or 15 metres (33 or 49 ft) is a more typical height. The variations of stem carbon content at different DBH classes are given in Table 2. 6s+�E�9��e["�" [email protected]����$��``�4�/�!O�g`*�` *�� endstream endobj 294 0 obj<>stream The model bias value and the model efficiency values for Rhizophora mucronata were −0.002563323 and 0.7665, respectively. The stem carbon content indicated by different superscript letters is significantly different from each other at 95% level of significance (, The correlation coefficient of Pearson’s correlation analysis among the tree parameters of, The residual distribution diagram for the best fitted model of, The residual diagram of residual versus actual values for validation of the best fitted model for. %PDF-1.6 %���� The height and growth of the Red Mangrove is in direct relation with the location where it grows and the existing growth conditions. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. ImageJ software was used to measure the leaf area of each tree (https://imagej.nih.gov/ij/). Coastal ecosystems such as mangrove forests are identified as blue carbon ecosystems and they store more carbon per unit area than terrestrial forests and therefore are recognized as highly important ecosystems to mitigate climate change . Rhizophora mucronata species as reported by Fagoonee (1990). Rhizophora mucronata belongs to family Rhizophoraceae. Rhizophora mucronata Lam. Under these conditions Rhizophora stylosa is able to reach a height of up to 30 meters but usually stops height between 5 to 20 meters. Furthermore, the results of the present study identifies that the Rhizophora mucronata as a suitable species to be used in mangrove replantation programs as it has the maximum carbon storage capacity when the trees are at a DBH range of 12–14 cm. I. analysis of models,”, J. H. Brown and G. B. Only 75% of data were used in construction of the model while other 25% of data were used in model validation. M. L. G. Soares and Y. Schaeffer-Novelli, “Above-ground biomass of mangrove species. In order to find whether the explanatory variables were related to each other, multicollinearity was checked. Click on a scientific name below to expand it in the PLANTS Classification Report. Classification. The residual diagram of residual versus actual values for Rhizophora mucronata is given in Figure 2. The stem carbon content of Rhizophora mucronata showed significant positive correlations with DBH (R2 = 0.797, ), total stem height (R2 = 0.648, ≤0.001) and merchantable stem height (R2 = 0.697, ≤0.001) (Table 3). menunjukkan bahwa buah bakau hitam (Rhizophora mucronata) memiliki antioksidan yang tinggi. The model bias values and the model efficiency values for the best fit model suggested that the model is suitable to be used practically. However, use of destructive methods for this purpose is not advisable as they can disrupt the balance of the carbon removal process. Accordingly, the two Rhizophora species, Rhizophora apiculata and Rhizophora mucronata, were selected for the study. The present study identifies that the allometric model, Ln C = −2.403 + 2.247 Ln DBH as the best fit and practical model to estimate the stem carbon content of Rhizophora mucronata. The result showed there were changes on environment parameters. �f�z�bw�yd�R��h�u��'���;3I���Ye��i�j�����~I�-� ��8:Qc�5̏���!�_��n��0�IL��?鉍���[email protected]���>�Ƥ3,�ք����3w��a�#�֯�͎σ�-bMV����(. �`"��@$�B��i ������٢ �9L��u��e!j��Hc[�Dz��H.���SA$/�d����b+փ�� Growth rate of R. mucronata showed variations on absolute daily height growth rate range of 0.215-3.333 mm/day (average 1.296 0.036 mm/day), while absolute daily diameter growth rate range was 2.15x10-3-0.196 mm/day (average 4.25x10-2 3.59x10-2 mm/day). Tree allometry is an important tool for estimating tree weight from independent variables such as trunk diameter, tree height, crown height, total height that are easily measurable in the field. HabitatInhabits the intertidal wetland zone, 0–6 m (0–20 ft) elevation between mean sea level and highest tides, with variable rainfall. The tree often branches from low down, and can have more than one bole, which can be 25 - 60cm in diameter [. The measured stem carbon content of the Rhizophora mucronata trees used for model validation ranged from 1.3 kg to 4.3 kg and their predicted values ranged from 1.3 kg to 3.6 kg. This study was conducted in a major mangrove conservation forest, The Kadol Kale mangrove forest located in Sri Lanka. Mangrove ecosystems are identified as important blue carbon ecosystems because they play an important role in carbon sequestration among the coastal ecosystems. The diameter at breast height of the sampled trees ranged from 4.7 cm to 15. Two models (Model A and Model B) were constructed from the stepwise regression with backward elimination method: Model A: Ln C = −1.545–2.122 Ln TH + 2.020 Ln MSH + 0.874 Ln CH + 2.011 Ln DBH Model B: Ln C = −2.403 + 2.247 Ln DBHHere, C: stem carbon content, TH: total height, MSH: merchantable stem height, CH: crown height, and DBH: diameter at breast height. e residual distribution diagrams for the best model for Rhizophora mucronataisgiveninFigure1.Distributionoftheresiduals for the models indicated a random pattern, and the dis- The transformed data were used in model construction, evaluation, and validation. MAI of stem diameter and height of R. mucronata and A. marina seedlings Species Spacing (m) MAI Stem Diameter (mm/yr) Height (cm/yr) Rhizophora mucronata 1 x 1 20,94 a 19,23 a 0,5 x 0,5 20,82 a 15,78 a The basic concept of allometric relationships is that the growth rate of one or more measurements of the tree is proportional to that of other parameters . Subscribe today. Rhizophora mucronata is a slow-growing, much-branched, evergreen tree growing up to 27 metres tall, with a bole 50 - 70 cm in diameter The mangrove species (Rhizophora mucronata Poir.) These genera are identified as most suitable species to be used in tropical mangrove replantation programmes due to their ability to distribute in a wide range of soil and hydrological conditions . Sign up here as a reviewer to help fast-track new submissions. The data were tested for normality using the Anderson Darling test, and the nonnormalized data were log transformed as appropriate. VegetationMangrove communities. As trees mature, they sequester less carbon but gain the capacity to store carbon in their stems [28–30]. The most common tropical mangrove genera include Avicennia, Rhizophora, Bruguiera, and Sonneratia. Description A small to medium-sized tree, 2–5 m, even up to 10 m tall, with strong apical dominance. This effect was higher by 44.2% in the bacillus-treated seedlings grown under 35 g l-1 salinity (Figure 1), by 39.6% in the mixture treated seedlings raised under 17.5 g l-1, and by 28.1% in the azotobacter-treated apiculata used in the present study had 3-4 months of age with an average height of 46±2 cm with 3-4 leaves obtained from Surabaya City Agriculture Office nursery around the mangrove forest in Wonorejo. The tree has a large number of The leaves are 5 to 7.5 cm (2 to 3 inches) long, opposite, oblong or spear-shaped; the upper surface is green and glossy, the lower surface whitish or grayish. Rhizophora apiculata is a species of plant in the Rhizophoraceae family. The height and growth of the Red Mangrove is in direct relation with the location where it grows and the existing growth conditions. B. S. Sabin, “Relationship between allometric variables and biomass in Western Juniper (Juniperus Occidentalis),” Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, 2008, M.S. The values within the parentheses indicate the range of each parameter. The best fitted model was evaluated using quantitative and qualitative evaluation methods as described by Subasinghe and Haripriya . For Rhizophora mucronata DBH, crown height, total height, and stem height () were statistically significant with stem carbon content. However, considering the current global warming conditions in the world, it is important to consider the carbon sequestration capacity of the selected species for replantation as the mangrove plants are considered to be excellent carbon dioxide removers from the atmosphere [11, 12]. 9 cm. The reliability of the model was 76.7%, and the model was significant at 95% level of significance. Damaged trees and trees devoid of leaves were not sampled during the study to avoid the effects on biomass accumulation process.
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