It can be put in three Anglo-Saxon monosyllables: ‘What is there?’ It can be answered, moreover, in a word—‘Everything’—and everyone will accept this answer as true. This seeming paradox has been brought up in many threads, including the cosmological argument for God, but they all seem like rationalizations. In my case i need to understand both regarding with my research. Ontology neither begins nor ends with a decision on what exists, it concerns itself with the hows and whys of those things. This makes reality relative. And talking about it at all implies some 'state' that can think and talk about it, therefore denying its nothingness. According to Guba the relativist position implies that there are multiple interpretations of reality, locally and historically specific and none of these ... based on realist ontology, asserts that reality is driven by immutable natural laws. We need to draw a clear line between ontology and epistemology. There are a great deal of variations, but scientific constructivism as proposed by Kuhn (Thomas Kuhn, "The Structure of Scientific Revolutions", 1962 is a must-read if you intend to verse regarding this subject) is a realist approach in that understanding of reality is a cooperative endeavour through paradigm shifts as scientifical revolutions. would have perhaps worded it as "Not anything is", and I'm not asserting it, but just asserting the viability of it. By "objective" here, do you mean "absolute"? - are next examples how indeed philosophy helps sciences. So need to understand the simple meaning of these two words. This post has two components, one is an attempt to sketch the construction of a ridiculously inclusive mathematical object which serves as the background 'model of things' in the OP, and the other attempts to situate what an ontology is in relation to the ridiculously inclusive object. Another variation on this position are known as Critical Realism, which accepts a realist ontology, but pairs that with an anti-realist epistemology. - what are Materialism and Idealism, and the mainstream philosophy at all, see the attached PDF; Besides at least a couple of last SS posts in the thread. Also, what is the actual difference between epistemology and theoretical perspective? On your view, numbers seem to have an existence independent of matter (and mind) which would qualify as Platonic realism about universals. How Do Nominalists Understand Reality? "Ontologically, either you're a realist or an anti-realist. However, equally … I think it's reasonable to posit that every particular can be related to every other particular in some way, and all relations can be related (and so on). Who sees the whole picture? I think I'd like to take this offline and start a new thread since it only has small bearing on Wayfarer's OP. Now the next point the premise "that there is something" supports the cosmological argument. This suggests that diagnostic nominalism is a rather plausible view. objective, or you accept that reality is only subjective (anti-realist). There is no objective existence of anything, thus solving the problem of why existence exists. Paul O'Grady clearly distinguishes five main kinds: relativism about truth, relativism about logic, ontological relativism, epistemological relativism, and, finally, relativism about rationality. I am a PhD student of medical sociology. You can call it "bias", but it's what I know. There's you and I, and the world which we inhabit, and everything in it. We need to draw a clear line between ontology and epistemology. To assert that an abstract square does not have right angles unless instantiated seems to be just that, an assertion that is a different interpretation. a 'mathematical structure' -- seems to render it as 'something', in an abstract sort of way. I think the assumption "there is nothing", would need to be supported, and this would be impossible to support. I think he then went a bit into Plato territory and presumed the existence of this structure. Imagine that we have access to the set of all particulars and every n-ary (generalised) relation between them (a construction similar to this but allowing 2-morphisms to map to 1-morphisms and introducing such 'cross' relations of arbitrary order and scope). While difficult to get past the bias that there needs to be something, it turns out there is no difference. It may certainly be opposed to various other positions. Similarly, we don’t require objective existence to relate to other parts of the structure. There are four basic philosophies of science: Logical positivism, Relativism, pragmatism and realism. Relativists have also rejected realist arguments that because we can physically touch and interact with our environment that this proves the world is real and that it can be tested in order to gain knowledge (e.g. - that is indeed a next typical evidently nonsensical – for any normal human - mainstream philosophical proposition. In this text Bhaskar lays the foundations of CR with his thesis for transcendental realism. Worth reading is Roy Bhaskar's critical realism offering a relatively new ontological position that argues for a stratified reality. It doesn’t. “Reality” is constructed without any relation to any humans’ interpretation. I have decided that Constructionism is going to be my epistemology, after I read Crotty (1998). Critical Realism (CR) is a philosophy of science that is based around a number of ontological principles. There is something to see. Going back to the discussion, what is an subjectivist ontology with an inductive epistemology. Things exist only in relation to something (anything) else. Examples of elements in the jumble to remove the jargon - rocks are in it, the relationship between rocks and hills as 'currently rolling down' are in it, the relation between 'currently rolling down' and every possible physics-based description are in it, the individual rock's relation to every physics-based descriptions are in it, the rock's relationship to the mathematical abstraction of a group are in it. Either you accept facts are real independently of the "human mind" (realist), i.e. qualitative research invokes a realist ontology because the research questions asked and the claims made on the basis of such research contain realist assumptions and have realist aspirations.
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